TARQUINIA: CATASTO CAVITÀ ARTIFICIALI – 5

124 numeri e 34 sotto numeri – PARTE SECONDA
Elenco delle Cavità Artificiali censite nel territorio tarquiniese, inserite nel Catasto Nazionale dell’Associazione S.C.A.M. – Federazione Nazionale Cavità Artificiali. leggi tutto…

TARQUINIA: CATASTO CAVITÀ ARTIFICIALI – 4

124 numeri e 34 sotto numeri – PARTE PRIMA
Elenco delle Cavità Artificiali censite nel territorio tarquiniese, inserite nel Catasto Nazionale dell’Associazione S.C.A.M. – Federazione Nazionale Cavità Artificiali. leggi tutto…

TARQUINIA: 200 CAVITÀ ARTIFICIALI – 3

I dati
Nel territorio del Comune di Tarquinia si sono individuate circa 200 cavità artificiali, a 124 delle quali sono stati assegnati i relativi numeri di catasto e una denominazione, creata appositamente. leggi tutto…

TARQUINIA: ARTICOLAZIONE PROGETTO – 2

Articolazione del progetto “Tarquinia Sotterranea”
L’entità del patrimonio ipogeo del territorio tarquiniese è tale da non consentire ancora di esprimersi in una sintesi. Resta ancora lontano il compimento del piano di esplorazione delle cavità e necessariamente occorre che chi abita nel territorio possa concorrere a tale intervento conoscitivo, coinvolgendo quanti lo hanno già studiato nell’esposizione dei dati raccolti in una sede unitaria. leggi tutto…

TARQUINIA: PROGETTO IN ETRURIA MERIDIONALE – 1

Progetto “Tarquinia sotterranea”
Delimitato da scoscendimenti naturali e tratti di antiche mura, l’altipiano della Civita di Tarquinia si è ben prestato alle indagini speleologiche indirizzate alla ricerca e alla catalogazione delle cavità artificiali: priva di recenti antropizzazioni, ha offerto l’opportunità di operare in un sito sostanzialmente integro. leggi tutto…

BOMBARDANO MILANO

Il Rifugio Antiaereo N° 87
Nonostante le difficoltà del momento siamo riusciti a pubblicare un nuovo lavoro. Si tratta di un libro che sintetizza gli studi e le attività svolte a Milano e in Lombardia sul tema di conoscenza e salvaguardia delle opere di protezione dei civili durante le due guerre mondiali. leggi tutto…

RESEARCH, STUDY AND CATALOGUING OF ARTIFICIAL CAVITIES

EXTRACT

I.1 – Archaeology and artificial cavities

Man is instinctively drawn to the observation and exploration of structures from the past. From this he acquires knowledge. On a utilitarian front, he puts such structures to use by living in them or restoring them. In mediaeval times and during the Renaissance period, man restores and reactivates certain Roman aqueducts. In modern times, he ensures the operation of ancient sewers and canals. Tombs and rock dwelling become stables, warehouses and garages. Abandoned mines are located and brought back into operation or revitalized as tourist attractions and the surface ecosystem is often re-established. Everything comes full circle. Many cave places of worship are still in use today. The advent of the modern era and the advent of archaeology have on the one hand led to structures being abandoned or destroyed while on the other hand, structures are actively sought out and protected. These brief and succinct examples explain how artificial cavities can be restored and researched for different and often divergent purposes.

Bolsena (VT), Poggio Moscini: rilievo della cavità da parte della FNCA.

Artificial cavities are strictly of interest to the archaeological field. The reasons for this are both clear and simple. Artificial cavities are either man-made structures, created by the hand of man, or caves (natural cavities), which have been transformed or adapted either manually or by means of machinery. Burials generally fall under this category. For instance, studies of the catacombs led to the development of Christian Archaeology (Bovini 1952). Certain sites with underground areas are subject to archaeological investigation. One striking example is provided by the underground Hal-Saflieni Hypogeum (3300-2500 BC), on the island of Malta. This particular structure is built on three levels and its main chamber has been designed as if it were an external facade, in the style of buildings on the surface (Benevolo, Albrecht 2002, p. 94).

Massa, Miniera del Frigido.

Archaeological excavations of urban centres often reveal underground structures such as cisterns, granary pits and tombs (figs. I.1 and I.2). Of studies conducted on Italian rock settlements, the one of Vitozza in Tuscany is worthy of notice. The settlement consists of approximately 200 artificial cavities, classified according to their shape and typology (Parenti 1980). Numerous cave excavation campaigns have also taken place. Archeo-stratigraphic excavations were recently carried out in the Lazaret cave in Niece, on the slopes of the Boron Mountain (De Lumley 2004). However these relate to studies of deposits formed within natural cave environments. Of the so-called “rock shelters”, the “cliff dwellings” of south western America, inhabited by pre-Columbian cultures, should be noted (Gleria 1995, pp. 110-113).

Moncrivello, pozzo esplorato e rilevato da R. Basilico, D. Padovan, G. Padovan.

The Brandes en Oisant site in Haute Savoie (France) is a mining settlement known as “Argentaria de La Branda”. Operational between the XII and XIV centuries, this is a large mining and metallurgic complex. Nearby lie the ancient silver mines, during the exploration of which, speleological as well as other techniques were adopted: «L’archéologie minière est essentiellement souterraine. Elle demande des competénces qui allient celles de tout archéologue à une solide formation spéléologique. L’étude des réseaux miniers rencontre un certain nombre de contraintes. Il faut, d’abord, savoir localiser d’éventuelles entrées, le plus souvent éboulées, voire totalement colmatées. Les réouvertures et plus encore les désobstructions sont longues et pénibles, difficilement comparables à la progression d’un chantier traditionnel» (Bailly-Maitre, Bruno Dupraz 1994, p. 13).

Antro delle Gallerie (VA). Lo speleo con la tuta gialla è Umberto Gibertini (Gibbo).

In principle, archaeological investigation consists of archive and surface research, its digs uncovering the entrances to underground structures. The internal areas of easily accessible structures are explored directly and stratigraphic excavations are carried out in natural cavities. It can generally be said that explorations are carried out almost exclusively in those cavities, which are easily accessible and easily explored. Or at any rate, in environments where soil can be moved with ease and stratigraphies for the phases of use can be easily carried out.

Limbiate, Villa Pusterla, rilievo di R. Basilico.

 

Lainate, Villa Borromeo: R. Basilico e D. Padovan.

 

I.4 – Artificial cavities and classification

In the first part of the XX century, Del Pelo Pardi was one of the first people to attempt to classify artificial cavities, providing his own interpretation regarding certain cunicular structures for drainage purposes (Del Pelo Pardi 1943). Artificial cavities were subsequently sub-divided within both the speleological and archaeological fields, although no specific classification was made.

The first “Bibliografia delle Cavità Artificiali Italiane” was presented at the “XVII Speleology Congress” in 1994, and divides artificial cavities according to their typology and purpose (Floris, Padovan 1997, pp. 79-174). The first draft for the cataloguing of artificial cavities was exposed in 1999, at the “International Meeting of Studies on Methodologies for research on ancient hydraulic science” (Padovan 2002 b, pp. 327-352). At the “XV Congress of Lombard Speleology” (Padovan 2000, pp. 11-54), which also took place in 1999, it was proposed that artificial cavities be classified under the speleological field. This classification was re-proposed at the “V Congress on Artificial Cavities”, held at Osoppo (Udine) in 2002 (Casini, Padovan 2002, pp. 155-184). The classification was also published in “Civita di Tarquinia: indagini speleologiche” (Padovan 2002 a) (fig. I.3). On an international level, the classification was published in 2005 in the aforementioned “Archeologia del sottosuolo. Lettura e studio delle cavità artificiali” (Padovan 2005 a).

Bolsena: esplorazione e rilievo dell’Acquedotto della Lucerna.

I.5 – The seven primary typologies

The study of artificial cavities has resulted in the identification of a certain number of typologies and sub-typologies. Some sub-typologies may in turn present underground characteristics, which shall only be mentioned within this book and not individually covered, except in exceptional cases. The continuation of works and the development of the discipline shall hopefully lead to the broadening and integration of this list, which is intended as a simple yet solid starting point.

1. EXTRACTION WORKS
quarry, mine

2. HYDRAULIC WORKS

2 a. WATER SUPPLY AND TRANSPORT
aqueduct, artificial underground canal, artificial vaulted canal, drainage channel, natural vaulted water course, underground effluent, filtering gallery, connecting shaft

2 b. VERTICAL PERFORATIONS
artesian shaft, graduated shaft, ordinary shaft, ordinary radial shaft

2 c. STORAGE
cistern, icehouse, snowstore

2 d. WASTE DISPOSAL
septic pit, sewer, clarification (or biological) well, drainage well, cesspit, sump

3. RELIGIOUS STRUCTURES
crypt, rock hermitage, underground hermitage, favissa, rocky place of worship, underground place of worship, mithraeum, holy well

4. FUNERARY STRUCTURES
catacomb, cemetery, columbarium, domus de janas, foiba, morgue, necropolis, ossuary, tomb

5. STRUCTURES FOR CIVIL USE
rocky dwelling, underground dwelling, rock apiary, butto (waste disposal pit), cellar, camera dello scirocco (sirocco chamber), columbarium, crypt, cryptoportico, underground oil mill, mushroom cultivation rooms, railway tunnel, pedestrian tunnel, road tunnel, granary pit, artificial cave, rock settlement, underground settlement, warehouse, nymphaeum, underground wine-making plant, gunpowder magazine, vault, road in cutting

6. MILITARY STRUCTURES
bastion, battery, castle, caponier, casemate, pillbox, countermine, demolition tunnel, cupola, fort, tunnel, counterscarp tunnel, demolition gallery, road tunnel, war cave, fortified cave, mine, cave structure, gunpowder magazine, postem, redoubt, reduit, shelter, artillery magazine, ravelin, vault, defensive tambour, traditore, trench

7. UNIDENTIFIED STRUCTURES
structures, the function of which is unknown.

 

Campiglia Marittima: Cisterna di Villa Lanzi.

 

Cagliari: Acquedotto romano (Giorgio Pintus sbuca all’interno di uno dei pozzi).

 

MILAN UNDERGROUND.